Equipment for forming and heat treatment evaluation

Gleeble® 3800 thermomechanical simulator with MAXStrain module

The thermal and mechanical conditions in the real fabrication processes can be physically simulated in the laboratory in order to gain a better understanding and modelling of the processes, and achieve the microstructure, physical and mechanically properties from a process which leads to improve and optimize material processing. Depending on the capability of the equipment performing this physical simulation, the precise experimental results can be readily transferred from the laboratory scale to the full industrial scale production.

CM2P group has Gleeble® 3800 equipped with the thermal power control for the materials testing and the actual manufacturing process simulations. The use of mobile conversion units allows this system to be configured with pocket jaws for deformation, melting and solidification, welding, thermal cycling, heat treatment, dilatometry, phase transformation, stress relaxation, creep, and fatigue studies. This unit can be easily reconfigured for use of MAXStrain II (multi-axis hot deformation system). MAXStrain unit is particularly well suited for hot rolling and multi-hit forging to simulate various thermomechanical cycles under precise control of strain, strain rate, and temperature.

The Gleeble® 3800 System is capable of 196 KN force in compression and 98 KN force in tension. It is also used in compression tests with deformation rates up to 50/sec while its hydraulic servo system creates a maximum high speed of 2 m/sec in tension experiments. Lengthwise and crosswise strains are measured with hot zone extensometers in this system. Heating and cooling rates can be controlled based on jaws, geometry of specimens and quench systems. The Gleeble® 3800 provides the ability to use larger specimens and achieve higher strain rates and conduction tests at lower temperatures for high strength materials.

MTS High Temperature Deformation System

The MTS machine has the capacity to reach 100KN with integrated IR radiation furnace (capable of heating up to 1250 oC) in order to simulate nonlinear heating and cooling cycles during forging. (see the pictures below)

Isothermal Hydraulic Forging Press-1000 (IHFP-1000)

The aerospace, automotive and forging industries have been beneficiary in the recent years of the introduction into commercial practice of a number of new forging technologies and equipment. A substantial number of these technologies are linked with the production of high temperature alloys and similar hard to deformed materials. For proper forging of these difficult alloys and critical components, the temperature, pressure and envelope required tolerances should be controlled by forging process parameters and type of forging press.

CM2P group has a 1000 metric ton Isothermal Hydraulic Forging Press (IHFP-1000) to forge high strength materials such as nickel base super alloys, titanium alloys, high-strength steels and aluminum alloys. This press is integrated with a high temperature resistance furnace (above 1200 °C) has been designed and optimized for large size sample applications. The IHFP-1000 has been also equipped with loading and heating chambers where the entire process is conducted in a vacuum or inert gas to protect the heating elements, nickel-based alloy platens (upper & lower anvil). The platens of IHFP-1000 can be designed and modified based on the various applications. The chambers have a transfer mechanism for loading and unloading of specimens to/from the forging zone. The data acquisition system monitors the parameters such as pressure, press position, press velocity and temperature. The IHFP-1000 actuator has a stroke of 305 mmm and its servo valve system allows having a velocity of at least 25 mm/s. The IHFP-1000 has a particular controller which allows carrying out sophisticate thermomechanical cycles including force, displacement as well as temperature functions.

The CM2P group has an isothermal temperature forging press with a capacity of 1000 metric tons (IHFP-1000) capable of forging materials with high mechanical strength such as nickel-based superalloys, titanium alloys, alloys of steels and aluminum. This press is also equipped with a high temperature oven (above 1200 ° C). One of the main features of this press involves devices for continuously heating dies and parts throughout the forming process. The IHFP-1000 is equipped with two charging and heating chambers where the entire process is carried out under vacuum or under inert gas in order to protect the heating parts. The anvils of the IHFP-1000 can be designed and modified to suit different applications. The standard configuration is suitable for samples of the order of 200 mm in diameter. The chambers have a transfer mechanism to load and unload the specimen to / from the forging area. The data acquisition system monitors parameters such as pressure, press position, press speed and temperature. The actuator of the IHFP-1000 has a stroke of 305 mmm and its servo system allows a speed of at least 25 mm / s.

The IHFP-1000 has a specific controller that allows the development and performance of sophisticated experiments at laboratory level or industrial tests.

High resolution strain dilatometer

The DIL805 A/D is a high-resolution dilatometer which simply measures the dilatation as a function of the temperature during a planned heat treatment cycle. Experiments can be performed on a wide range of material due to its high temperature range (20 – 1700 °C) as well as its high heating (max. 100 °C/s) and cooling (max. 100 °C/s) capabilities. The obtained dilatation results are used in numerous scientific applications such as the construction of TTT and CCT diagrams by converting dilatation into fractions of phase transformed. Moreover, physical properties as a function of temperature could be extracted, like the density and coefficient of linear thermal expansion. A complementary compressive deformation module could also be installed to simulate deformations during a manufacturing process. Aside from dilatation results, the dilatometer could also be used as a furnace to heat treat small samples for microstructure observations as well as grain size identification. Standard sample sizes are 4x10mm cylinders for free dilatation and 5x10mm cylinders for experiments involving deformation.

Equipment for characterization and analysis of forged products

Hitachi SU-8230 FESEM

The HITACHI SU-8230 is one of the most advanced ultra-high cold field emission scanning electron microscopes (SEM) which are currently available in the world. This microscope with the largest specimen chamber size in SU8200 series and an optimized cold field emission gun for low voltages, can offer a resolution as small as 0.6nm at 15KV. The SU-8230 SEM of École de Technologie Supérieure (ÉTS) has been equipped with two EDS detector for different objective of measurement; A Bruker XFlash detector which is suitable for high HVs (above 15KV) and can be employed simultaneously with an EBSD measurement to have the chemical composition information as well as the crystallographic information; A Bruker FlatQUAD detector for low HV measurements (Below 20KV) even at 3KV and due to its geometry and distance to the sample surface, an enhanced level of EDS analysis of nano particles have also been empowered. Besides, the Bruker e–FlashHD EBSD detector has been enabled for fast scanning and at the same time high definition Kikuchi patterns to display finest details.

MEB Hitachi TM3000

The HITACHI TM3000 tabletop SEM with backscattered electron detector for imaging and X-flash EDS detector for chemical analysis is the best choice for a quick microstructural observation and revealing features specially in micros size levels. Easy sample setup, fast vacuum reaching, simple and user-friendly interface together with short adjustment time are the key benefits of employing this microscope. The XFlash®430 H detector on this microscope as a silicon drift detector (SDD) with 30mm2 active area is capable to detect all elements starting from boron (B5 ~ Am95).

MEB Hitachi S-3600N

The Hitachi S-3600N as one of s-3000 series of Hitachi SEMs, offers special advantages due to its large sample chamber (Max 10 inch), high sample thickness capability (Max. 70mm), high sample weight toleration (Max. 2.0Kg), 5 axis auto large stage (X/Y: 150mm/110mm), resolution guarantee at low Vacc (3KV), and adjustable vacuum pressure (VP).

Le microscope confocal laser Olympus LEXT OLS4100

The Olympus LEXT OLS4100 is a 3D laser confocal microscope with competence to reveal surface features at 10nm of resolution. Beside the fast acquisition of the high-resolution images, its superior metrology power makes the imaging possible at the slops up to 85°. Micro-profile measurement, multi layer measurements of even transparent materials, surface roughness measurement, 3D color imaging, are just some of the capabilities of the LEXT OLS4100. 

Hitachi IM4000Plus à usinage ionique

The HITACHI IM4000Plus, with integrated flat and cross section milling configurations, is an argon ion gas milling equipment employed for specimen surface preparation. Vanishing conventional mechanical polishing damages, scratches and their related deformation effects is of ion milling advantages. IM4000 Plus which is the latest developed model among its series, offers enhanced milling rates both in flat and cross section modes.

Forming process simulation tools

ANSYS-LSDYNA: This software allows thermal and mechanical analysis in small (ANSYS) and large (LSDYNA) strains. Both softwares are operational at ETS and have already been used to simulate shaping processes.

ABAQUS: This software is well-known in industry and academia for its versatility and its ability to simulate cold and hot deformations.

THERCAST and FORGE3: These two software belong to TRANSVALOR company, which are among the two or three software programs used in the world to simulate shaping processes. THERCAST, is used to simulate casting and solidification structure, while FORGE3 is used to simulate solid state forming processes (forging, rolling, extrusion) and heat treatment (quenching, tempering, annealed).

THERCAST and FORGE3: These two software programs from the TRANSVALOR company are among the two or three software programs in the world to simulate shaping processes. The first, THERCAST, is used to simulate casting and solidification structure, while FORGE3 is used to simulate solid state forming processes (forging, rolling, extrusion) and heat treatment (quenching, tempering , annealed).